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Islamic republic of Iran:

Iran is located in the Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf in the south and the Caspian Sea in the north. It covers an area of 1.648 million square kilometers (636,296 square miles) and is edged between Iraq, with which it shares a border of 1,458 kilometers (906 miles), and Pakistan and Afghanistan in the east, with which Iran has 909 kilometers (565 miles) and 936 kilometers (582 miles), respectively, of common borderline. Iran also shares 499 kilometers (310 miles) of borderline with Turkey, 992 kilometers (616 miles) with Turkmenistan, 432 kilometers (268 miles) with Azerbaijan, and some 35 kilometers (22 miles) with Armenia, the latter 3 states formerly being part of the USSR. A series of massive, heavily eroded mountain ranges surround Iran's high interior basin. Most of the country is above 1,500 feet, one-sixth of it over 6,500 high. In sharp contrast are the coastal regions outside the mountain ring. In the north, the 400-mile strip along the Caspian Sea, never more than 70 miles wide and frequently narrowing to 10, falls sharply from the 10,000-foot summit to 90 feet below sea level. In the south, the land drops away from a 2,000 foot plateau, backed by a rugged escarpment three times as high, to meet the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. With an area of 1,648,000 square kilometers (636,000 sq mi), Iran ranks eighteenth in size among the countries of the world.


Iran's Climate:

Iran's climate ranges from arid or semiarid, to subtropical along the Caspian coast and the northern forests. On the northern edge of the country (the Caspian coastal plain) temperatures rarely fall below freezing and the area remains humid for the rest of the year. Summer temperatures rarely exceed 29 °C (84.2 °F). Annual precipitation is 680 mm (26.8 in) in the eastern part of the plain and more than 1,700 mm (66.9 in) in the western part. To the west, settlements in the Zagros basin experience lower temperatures, severe winters with below zero average daily temperatures and heavy snowfall. The eastern and central basins are arid, with less than 200 mm (7.9 in) of rain, and have occasional deserts. Average summer temperatures exceed 38 °C (100.4 °F). The coastal plains of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in southern Iran have mild winters, and very humid and hot summers. The annual precipitation ranges from 135 to 355 mm (5.3 to 14.0 in).


Culture:

Iran's capital is Tehran and its national language is Persian. Throughout Iran's long history, in spite of different devastating invasions and occupations by Arabs, Turks, Mongols, British, Russians, and others, the country has always maintained its national identity and has developed as a distinct political and cultural entity. Iran is known as the center of civilization. Persian culture has long been a predominant culture of the region, with Persian considered the language of intellectuals during much of the 2nd millennium, and the language of religion and the populace before that Persian literature inspired Goethe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and many others, and it has been often dubbed as a most worthy language to serve as a conduit for poetry. Dialects of Persian are sporadically spoken throughout the region from China to Syria to Russia, though mainly in the Iranian Plateau Iranian art has one of the richest art heritages in world history and encompasses many disciplines including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stonemasonry.Iran has great poets and writers who are well known all over the world. For instance: Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (Rūmī), Saadi, Ferdowsi According to Persian historian and archaeologist Arthur Pope, the supreme Iranian art, in the proper meaning of the word, has always been its architecture. The supremacy of architecture applies to both pre-and post-Islamic periods. The history of architecture of Iran goes back to seventh millennium BC. This art has been completed by various issues, particularly the rituals.


Iran's Attraction:

There are a lot of historic sites and tourist attractions in Iran. Here you get familiar with some of those which have been registered in the UNESCO List of world human heritage. Of course, Iran is an ancient country that can potentially offer plenty of historic sites and tourist attractions to its visitors .Such as: Pasargadae,Bam,Soltaniyeh,Taq wa San o( Taq-e Bostan),Shushtar Waterfalls,Bisotun,Armenian Monastic Ensembles,Meidan-e-Emam,Tchogha Zanbil., Persepolis.


Iran's Calendar:

Days of the week

In the Iranian calendar, every week begins on Saturday and ends on Friday. The names of the days of the week are as follows: shambe (natively spelled "shanbeh"), yekshambe, doshambe, seshambe, chæharshambe, panjshambe and jom'e (yek, do, se, chæhar, and panj are the Persian words for the numbers one through five). The name for Friday, jom'e, is Arabic (Persian). Jom'e is sometimes referred to by the native Persian name, adineh. In most Islamic countries, Friday is the weekly holiday.


Iranian Month Names

The first day of the calendar year is also the day of the greatest festival of the year in Iran, Afghanistan and surrounding regions, called norooz (two morphemes: no (new) and rooz (day), meaning "new day"). The celebration is filled with many festivities and runs a course of 13 days. The last day of which is called siz-dah bedar (Literal translation-"13 to outdoor")


Population and Religion:

Iran ended 2013 with a population of 77,447,168 people. The male population is greater, with 38,957,567 men, representing 50.30% of the total, compared to 38,489,601 or 49.69% women. Iran shows a moderate population density, with 44 people per square km and it was in position 59th in our ranking of density population in 2013. Iran's population increased dramatically during the latter half of the 20th century, reaching about 75 million by 2011. In recent years, however, Iran's birth rate has dropped significantly. Studies project that Iran's rate of population growth will continue to slow until it stabilizes above 100 million by 2050. More than half of Iran's population is under 35 years old (2012) and More than 99% of the Iranians are Muslims; Less than 1% non-Muslim minorities include Christians, Zoroastrians and Jews. In addition to its international migration pattern, Iran also exhibits one of the steepest urban growth rates in the world according to the UN humanitarian information unit. According to 2005 population estimates, approximately 67 percent of Iran's population lives in urban areas, up from 27 percent in 1950.


Population

The following is a list of the s three most populous cities in the country:

  • Tehran (Tehran Province): 12,765,238 (conurbation and commuter towns included) (8,088,287 in the city itself)
  • Mashad (Razavi Khorasan): 2,868,350 (this does include suburban population) (2,410,800 in the city itself)
  • Isfahan (Isfahan Province): 3,430,353 (including its metropolitan area and the population living within the Isfahan conurbation) (1,602,110 in the city itself)[24]

  • Currency:

    The Iranian Rial is the currency of Iran. he name derives from the Portuguese real (meaning royal in Portugal), which was for several centuries the currency in Portugal (derived from Latin regalis ).Although the "toman" is no longer an official unit of Iranian currency, Iranians commonly express amounts of money and prices of goods in "tomans." For this purpose, one "toman" equals 10 rials. Despite this usage, amounts of money and prices of goods are virtually always written in rials


    Tehran

    Tehran (the capital of Iran) is Iran's largest city and urban area, and the largest city in Western Asia. .With a population of around 8.3 million and surpassing 14 million in the wider metropolitan area, Tehran is ranked 29th in the world for its population.


    Language:

    It is home to diverse ethnic and linguistic groups from all over the country. The native language of the city is the Tehrani accent of Persian. The majority of the inhabitants of the city are Persian speakers (known by the name Pars/Fars). Although, Persian is the city's native tongue, there are large populations of Azarbaijanis (Azeri/ turk), Kurds (Kord), Lurs (Lor) and Northern Iranians (Shomali).


    Climate:

    Tehran's climate is largely defined by its geographic location, with the towering Alborz Mountains to its north and the central desert to the south. It can be generally described as mild in the spring and autumn, hot and dry in the summer, and cold in the winter. Because the city is large with significant differences in elevation among various districts, the weather is often cooler in the hilly north than in the flat southern part of Tehran.


    Tourism and attractions:

    Tehran, as Iran's showcase and capital city, has a wealth of cultural attractions. Azadi Tower and the Milad Tower (sixth tallest tower) in the world have come to symbolize the city. Tehran has a lot of tourist attractions. The Sun Throne (also known as the Peacock Throne) of the Persian Kings (Shahs) can be found in Golestan Palace. Some well-known museums are National Museum of Iran, Sa'dabad Palaces Complex, Glassware and Ceramics Museum of Iran, The Carpet Museum of Iran, Tehran's Under glass painting Museum, Niavaran Palace Complex, and Safir Office Machines Museum. The Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art features works of famous artists such as Van Gogh, Pablo Picasso and Andy Warhol. The collection of these paintings was selected by former Empress Farah Diba. Tehran is also home to the Iranian Imperial Crown Jewels, also called the Imperial Crown Jewels of Persia, it is claimed to be the largest, most dazzling and valuable jewel collection in the world. The collection comprises a set of crowns and thrones, some 30 tiaras, numerous aigrettes, jewel-studded swords and shields, a vast amount of precious loose gems, including the largest collections of emeralds, rubies and diamonds in the world. It also includes other items collected by the Shahs of Iran during the 2,500 year existence of the Iranian Kingdom. The Imperial Crown Jewels are still on display in the Iranian Central Bank in Tehran.

    Tehran has a wide range of shopping opportunities, from traditional bazaars to shopping districts and modern shopping malls. The great Bazaar of Tehran and the Tajrish Bazaar are the biggest traditional bazaars in Tehran. Shopping districts such as Valiasr, Shariati, Mirdamad have shopping with a wide range of different shops. Big malls like Tiraje, Hyperstar, and smaller shopping centers like Tandis, Golestan, and Safavie are popular among Tehran's population and visitors.


    Transportation:

    According to the head of Tehran Municipality's Environment and Sustainable Development Office, Tehran has a capacity almost for 700,000 cars but currently more than 3 million cars are on the roads. The automation industry has recently developed but international sanctions influence the production processes periodically. Tehran is served by two main airports. Mehrabad Airport, is used for domestic and charter flights. This airport is located in the western part of the city. Imam Khomeini International Airport located 50 kilometres (31 miles) south of the city, handles all international flights. Tehran claims to have one of the cleanest and most convenient metro systems, in terms of accessibility to different parts of the city, in the region .The feasibility study and conceptual planning of the construction were started in the 1970s. In 2001, the first two of the eight projected metro lines were opened. Now, Tehran's metro has five operative lines and is 152 km (94 mi) long, with two other lines under construction. Tehran also has a central railway station with connecting services round the clock to various cities in the country. A Tehran-Europe train line is also running. Tehran's transport system also includes conventional buses, trolleybuses and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT). The metropolis of Tehran enjoys a huge network of highways and of interchanges, ramps, and loops . In 2007 there were 130 km (81 mi) of highways and 120 km (75 mi) of ramps and loops under construction.

    Education:

    Tehran International Book Fair (TIBF) is known to the international publishing world as one of the most important publishing events in Asia. Tehran is the largest and most important educational center of Iran. Today there are a total of nearly 50 major colleges and universities in Greater Tehran.Tehran's major colleges and universities in alphabetic order are:

    • Allameh Tabataba'i University (ATU)
    • Alzahra University (AU)
    • Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic)
    • Bagher Aloloum University
    • Imam Ali University for Army Officers
    • Imam Hossein University (IHU)
    • Imam Sadeq University (ISU)
    • Institute for Management and Planning Studies (IMPS
    • Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM)
    • International University of Iran
    • Iran College of Tele-communications
    • Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute (IPPI)
    • Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS)
    • Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST)
    • Islamic Azad University (IAU)
    • K.N.Toosi University of Technology (KNTU)
    • Malek-Ashtar University of Technology (MUT)
    • Medical University for the Islamic Republic of Iran's Army
    • NAJA University of Police
    • Payame Noor University (PNU)
    • Power and Water Institute of Technology(PWIT)
    • School of International Relations (SIR)
    • Shahed University
    • Shahid Beheshti University (SBU)
    • Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBUMS)
    • Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University
    • Shahid Sattari University of Aeronautical Engineering
    • Sharif University of Technology
    • Tarbiat Modares University (TMU)
    • Tehran College of Environment
    • Tehran University of Applied Science and Technolog
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    • Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS)
    • The Research Institute of The Petroleum Industry
    • University of Economic Sciences (UES)
    • University of Emam Reza
    • Art University
    • University of Science and Culture (Elm-o-Farhang)
    • University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
    • University of Tehran (UT)